Gestational trophoblastic tumors (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor) should be classified according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria into nonmetastatic, low-risk metastatic, and high-risk metastatic categories. Nonmetastatic tumors (FIGO Stage I) can be treated with a variety of single-agent methotrexate or actinomycin D protocols, resulting in cure of essentially all patients. Metastatic low-risk tumors (FIGO Stages II and III, WHO score < 8) should be treated with 5-day dosage schedules of methotrexate or actinomycin D, with cure rates approaching 100%. Metastatic high-risk tumors (FIGO Stage IV, WHO score > 7) require combination chemotherapy with etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine (EMA-CO) with or without adjuvant radiation therapy and surgery to achieve cure rates of 80% to 90%.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)