Treatment of Liver Tumors with Lipiodol TACE: Technical Recommendations from Experts Opinion

Thierry de Baere*, Yasuaki Arai, Riccardo Lencioni, Jean Francois Geschwind, William Rilling, Riad Salem, Osamu Matsui, Michael C. Soulen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


Transarterial chemoembolization with Lipiodol (Lipiodol TACE), also called conventional TACE, was developed in the early 1980s and widely adopted worldwide after randomized control trials and meta-analysis demonstrated superiority of Lipiodol TACE to best supportive care. Presently, there is no level one evidence that other TACE techniques are superior to Lipiodol TACE for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which includes patients with preserved liver function and nonsurgical large or multinodular HCC without distant metastases. In addition, TACE is part of the treatment for progressive or symptomatic liver metastases from gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. When injected into the hepatic artery, Lipiodol has the unique property of selective uptake and retention in hyperarterialyzed liver tumors. Lipiodol/drug emulsion followed by particle embolization has been demonstrated to improve the pharmacokinetic of the drug and tumor response. Radio opacity of Lipiodol helps to monitor treatment delivery, with retention of Lipiodol serving as an imaging biomarker for tumor response. For 30 years, Lipiodol TACE has been inconsistently referenced in many publications with various levels of details for the method of preparation and administration, with reported progressive outcomes following improvements in the technique and the devices used to deliver the treatment and better patient selection. Consequently, there is no consensus on the standard method of TACE regarding the use of anticancer agents, embolic material, technical details, and the treatment schedule. In order to develop an internationally validated technical recommendation to standardize the Lipiodol TACE procedure, a worldwide panel of experts participated in a consensus meeting held on May 10, 2014.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)334-343
Number of pages10
JournalCardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Chemoembolization/chemoembolisation
  • Clinical practice
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  • Interventional oncology
  • Intra-arterial
  • Liver/hepatic
  • Transarterial chemoembolization/embolisation (TACE)
  • Transcatheter therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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