Treatment of Nonmotor Symptoms Associated with Parkinson Disease

Jennifer G. Goldman*, Carlos Manuel Guerra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Parkinson disease (PD) is well recognized by its motor features of bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and gait and balance difficulties. However, PD is also characterized by a myriad of nonmotor symptoms, which may occur even before motor symptoms, early in the course of disease, and throughout the advancing disease. These nonmotor symptoms span multiple different systems, invoke multiple different neurotransmitters, and require multiple strategies for treatment including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions and, often, multiple different disciplines. This article discusses symptoms, assessments, and therapeutics for the nonmotor symptoms of PD including those affecting mood, cognition, behavior, sleep, autonomic function, and sensory systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-292
Number of pages24
JournalNeurologic clinics
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2020


  • Anxiety
  • Apathy
  • Autonomic symptoms
  • Cognition
  • Dementia
  • Depression
  • Psychosis
  • Sensory symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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