Trends in Gestational Diabetes at First Live Birth by Race and Ethnicity in the US, 2011-2019

Nilay S. Shah, Michael C. Wang, Priya M. Freaney, Amanda M. Perak, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Namratha R. Kandula, Erica P. Gunderson, Kai Mc Keever Bullard, William A. Grobman, Matthew J. O'Brien, Sadiya S. Khan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Scopus citations


Importance: Gestational diabetes is associated with adverse maternal and offspring outcomes. Objective: To determine whether rates of gestational diabetes among individuals at first live birth changed from 2011 to 2019 and how these rates differ by race and ethnicity in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional analysis using National Center for Health Statistics data for 12610235 individuals aged 15 to 44 years with singleton first live births from 2011 to 2019 in the US. Exposures: Gestational diabetes data stratified by the following race and ethnicity groups: Hispanic/Latina (including Central and South American, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican); non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (including Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipina, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese); non-Hispanic Black; and non-Hispanic White. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were age-standardized rates of gestational diabetes (per 1000 live births) and respective mean annual percent change and rate ratios (RRs) of gestational diabetes in non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (overall and in subgroups), non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latina (overall and in subgroups) individuals relative to non-Hispanic White individuals (referent group). Results: Among the 12610235 included individuals (mean [SD] age, 26.3 [5.8] years), the overall age-standardized gestational diabetes rate significantly increased from 47.6 (95% CI, 47.1-48.0) to 63.5 (95% CI, 63.1-64.0) per 1000 live births from 2011 to 2019, a mean annual percent change of 3.7% (95% CI, 2.8%-4.6%) per year. Of the 12610235 participants, 21% were Hispanic/Latina (2019 gestational diabetes rate, 66.6 [95% CI, 65.6-67.7]; RR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.13-1.18]), 8% were non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (2019 gestational diabetes rate, 102.7 [95% CI, 100.7-104.7]; RR, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.74-1.82]), 14% were non-Hispanic Black (2019 gestational diabetes rate, 55.7 [95% CI, 54.5-57.0]; RR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.94-0.99]), and 56% were non-Hispanic White (2019 gestational diabetes rate, 57.7 [95% CI, 57.2-58.3]; referent group). Gestational diabetes rates were highest in Asian Indian participants (2019 gestational diabetes rate, 129.1 [95% CI, 100.7-104.7]; RR, 2.24 [95% CI, 2.15-2.33]). Among Hispanic/Latina participants, gestational diabetes rates were highest among Puerto Rican individuals (2019 gestational diabetes rate, 75.8 [95% CI, 71.8-79.9]; RR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.24-1.39]). Gestational diabetes rates increased among all race and ethnicity subgroups and across all age groups. Conclusions and Relevance: Among individuals with a singleton first live birth in the US from 2011 to 2019, rates of gestational diabetes increased across all racial and ethnic subgroups. Differences in absolute gestational diabetes rates were observed across race and ethnicity subgroups..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)660-669
Number of pages10
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 17 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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