Trends in Prevalence of Diabetes and Control of Risk Factors in Diabetes among US Adults, 1999-2018

Li Wang, Xiaoguang Li, Zhaoxin Wang, Michael P. Bancks, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Philip Greenland, Ying Qing Feng, Hui Wang*, Victor W. Zhong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Understanding population-wide trends in prevalence and control of diabetes is critical to planning public health approaches for prevention and management of the disease. Objective: To determine trends in prevalence of diabetes and control of risk factors in diabetes among US adults between 1999-2000 and 2017-2018. Design, Setting, and Participants: Ten cycles of cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data between 1999-2000 and 2017-2018 were included. The study samples were weighted to be representative of the noninstitutionalized civilian resident US population. Adults aged 18 years or older were included, except pregnant women. Exposures: Survey cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diabetes was defined by self-report of diabetes diagnosis, fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dL or more, or hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) level of 6.5% or more. Three risk factor control goals were individualized HbA1ctargets, blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL. Prevalence of diabetes and proportion of adults with diagnosed diabetes who achieved risk factor control goals, overall and by sociodemographic variables, were estimated. Results: Among the 28 143 participants included (weighted mean age, 48.2 years; 49.3% men), the estimated age-standardized prevalence of diabetes increased significantly from 9.8% (95% CI, 8.6%-11.1%) in 1999-2000 to 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9%-15.8%) in 2017-2018 (P for trend <.001). From 1999-2002 to 2015-2018, the estimated age-standardized proportion of adults with diagnosed diabetes who achieved blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg (P for trend =.007) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL (P for trend <.001) increased significantly, but not individualized HbA1ctargets (P for trend =.51). In 2015-2018, 66.8% (95% CI, 63.2%-70.4%), 48.2% (95% CI, 44.6%-51.8%), and 59.7% (95% CI, 54.2%-65.2%) of adults with diagnosed diabetes achieved individualized HbA1ctargets, blood pressure less than 130/80 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL, respectively. Only 21.2% of these adults (95% CI, 15.5%-26.8%) achieved all 3. During the entire study period, these 3 goals were significantly less likely to be achieved among young adults aged 18 to 44 years (vs older adults ≥65 years: estimated proportion, 7.4% vs 21.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.16-0.63]), non-Hispanic Black adults (vs non-Hispanic White adults: estimated age-standardized proportion, 12.5% vs 20.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.40-0.90]), and Mexican American adults (vs non-Hispanic White adults: estimated age-standardized proportion, 10.9% vs 20.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.31-0.77]). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on NHANES data from US adults, the estimated prevalence of diabetes increased significantly between 1999-2000 and 2017-2018. Only an estimated 21% of adults with diagnosed diabetes achieved all 3 risk factor control goals in 2015-2018..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)704-716
Number of pages13
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume326
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 24 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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