Trends in the Incidence of New-Onset Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Among Rural and Urban Areas in the United States, 2007 to 2019

Natalie A. Cameron, Ian Everitt, Laura E. Seegmiller, Lynn M. Yee, William A. Grobman, Sadiya S. Khan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are growing public health problems that contribute to maternal morbidity, mortality, and future risk of cardiovascular disease. Given established rural-urban differences in maternal cardiovascular health, we described contemporary trends in new-onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the United States. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a serial, cross-sectional analysis of 51 685 525 live births to individuals aged 15 to 44 years from 2007 to 2019 using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Natality Database. We included gestational hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia in individuals without chronic hypertension and calculated the age-adjusted incidence (95% CI) per 1000 live births overall and by urbanization status (rural or urban). We used Joinpoint software to identify inflection points and calculate rate of change. We quantified rate ratios to compare the relative incidence in rural compared with urban areas. Incidence (95% CI) of new-onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy increased from 2007 to 2019 in both rural (48.6 [48.0– 49.2] to 83.9 [83.1– 84.7]) and urban (37.0 [36.8– 37.2] to 77.2 [76.8–77.6]) areas. The rate of annual increase in new-onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was more rapid after 2014 with greater acceleration in urban compared with rural areas. Rate ratios (95% CI) comparing incidence of new-onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in rural and urban areas decreased from 1.31 (1.30–1.33) in 2007 to 1.09 (1.08–1.10) in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of new-onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy doubled from 2007 to 2019 with persistent ruralurban differences highlighting the need for targeted interventions to improve the health of pregnant individuals and their offspring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere023791
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 18 2022

Keywords

  • Gestational hypertension
  • Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
  • Preeclampsia
  • Rural
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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