Tricuspid regurgitation and implantable devices

Rasha Al-Bawardy, Amar Krishnaswamy, Jeevanantham Rajeswaran, Mandeep Bhargava, Oussama Wazni, Bruce Wilkoff, Emin Murat Tuzcu, David Martin, James Thomas, Eugene Blackstone, Samir Kapadia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Background There are limited and conflicting data regarding the prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after cardiac device implantation (implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD]; permanent pacemaker [PPM]). Objective The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of TR after cardiac device implantation and determine its clinical significance. Methods A total of 1,596 patients, who had cardiac devices implanted between 2005 and 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic and had at least one preimplantation echocardiogram and at least one postimplantation echocardiogram were included in this study. A total of 3,566 postimplantation echocardiograms were available for the 1,596 patients (median follow-up 10 months). The primary end point was postimplantation TR and the secondary end point was all-cause mortality after implantation. We have used a cumulative logistic nonlinear mixed-effects model to assess the temporal trend of TR prevalence and a parametric multiphase hazard model to assess survival. Results Of the 1,596 patients (mean age: 60 ± 10 years, 61% of patients were men), 985 (62%) had ICDs (including 334 patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator) and 611 (38%) had PPMs. The prevalence of grade 3 or 4+ TR increased from 27% to 31% by 1 month and to 35% at 4 years. Accordingly, prevalence of grade 0/1+ TR decreased from 46% preimplantation to 37% at 1 month and to 32% at 4 years. Device type (ICD vs PPM) and the number of leads placed did not have an effect on postimplantation TR (P > 0.2). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) did not change over time (36 mm Hg baseline, 37.5 mm Hg by 3 months, and 37 mm Hg by 1 year). One-year and 5-year survival were 93% and 73%, respectively. Postimplantation TR was an independent risk factor for late death (P < 0.05). Conclusion Cardiac device implantation was associated with a small but significant increase in the prevalence of moderate and severe TR, both acutely and chronically after implantation. The increase in TR was similar with both ICD and PPM placement, which was not related to the number of leads implanted and not associated with a significant increase in RVSP. Postimplantation TR was associated with a higher risk of mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-266
Number of pages8
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D)
  • implantable cardiac devices
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
  • permanent pacemaker (PPM)
  • tricuspid regurgitation (TR)
  • valvular heart disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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