Tumor immune microenvironment clusters in localized prostate adenocarcinoma: Prognostic impact of macrophage enriched/plasma cell non-enriched subtypes

Neil K. Jairath, Mark W. Farha, Sudharsan Srinivasan, Ruple Jairath, Michael D. Green, Robert T. Dess, William C. Jackson, Adam B. Weiner, Edward M. Schaeffer, Shuang G. Zhao, Felix Y. Feng, Issam El Naqa, Daniel E. Spratt*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is characterized by significant heterogeneity in its molecular, genomic, and immunologic characteristics. Methods: Whole transcriptome RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas of prostate adenocarcinomas (n = 492) was utilized. The immune microenvironment was characterized using the CIBERSORTX tool to identify immune cell type composition. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed based on immune cell type content. Analyses of progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastases, and overall survival (OS) were performed using Kaplan–Meier estimates and Cox regression multivariable analyses. Results: Four immune clusters were identified, largely defined by plasma cell, CD4+ Memory Resting T Cells (CD4 MR), and M0 and M2 macrophage content (CD4 MRHigh Plasma CellHigh M0Low M2Mid, CD4 MRLow Plasma CellHigh M0Low M2Low, CD4 MRHigh Plasma CellLow M0High M2Low, and CD4 MRHigh Plasma CellLow M0Low M2High ). The two macrophage-enriched/plasma cell non-enriched clusters (3 and 4) demonstrated worse PFS (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.46–3.45, p = 0.0002) than the clusters 1 and 2. No metastatic events occurred in the plasma cell enriched, non-macrophage-enriched clusters. Comparing clusters 3 vs. 4, in patients treated by surgery alone, cluster 3 had zero progression events (p < 0.0001). However, cluster 3 patients had worse outcomes after post-operative radiotherapy (p = 0.018). Conclusion: Distinct tumor immune clusters with a macrophage-enriched, plasma cell non-enriched phenotype and reduced plasma cell enrichment independently characterize an aggressive phenotype in localized prostate cancer that may differentially respond to treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1973
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume9
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Immunotherapy
  • Macrophages
  • Plasma cells
  • Prostate cancer
  • RNAseq
  • Radiation therapy
  • Tumor immune microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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