Tumor Microenvironment and Hemorheological Abnormalities

Gianfranco Baronzio, Isabel Freitas*, Hau C. Kwaan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


This article reviews the various mechanisms in a malignant tumor that lead to hypoxia, production of tumor interstitial fluid, and rheological changes in its microenvironment. In addition, the associated procoagulant effects are described. The latter phenomenon is the result of complex and dynamic interplay among tumor cells, endothelial cells, circulating blood cells, and angiogenic, clotting, and hemorheological factors. The implications of these abnormalities on therapeutic approach are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)489-497
Number of pages9
JournalSeminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003


  • Hemorheology
  • Hypoxia
  • Thrombosis
  • Tumor interstitial fluid
  • VEGF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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