Neutrophils (PMNs) are a vital part of host defense and are the principal leukocyte in innate immunity. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine with roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. We hypothesize that PMNs contain preformed IL-18, which is released in response to specific inflammatory stimuli. Isolated PMNs were stimulated with a battery of chemoattractants (5 min to 24 h), and IL-18 release was measured. PMNs were also separated into subcellular fractions and immunoblotted with antibodies against IL-18 or were fixed and probed with antibodies to IL-18 as well as to the contents of granules, intracellular organelles, and filamentous actin (F-actin), incubated with fluorescent secondary antibodies, and examined by digital microscopy. Quiescent PMNs contained IL-18 in the cytoplasm, associated with F-actin, as determined by positive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET+). In turn, TNF-α stimulation disrupted the association of IL-18 with F-actin, induced a FRET+ interaction of IL-18 with lipid rafts, and elicited IL-18 release. Manipulation of F-actin status confirmed the relationship between IL-18 and F-actin in resting PMNs. Consequently, incubation with monomeric IL-18 binding protein inhibited TNF-α-mediated priming of the PMN oxidase. We conclude that human PMNs contain IL-18 associated with F-actin in the cytoplasm and TNF-α stimulation causes dissociation of IL-18 from F-actin, association with lipid rafts, and extracellular release. Extracellular IL-18 participates in TNF-α priming of the PMN oxidase as demonstrated by inhibition with the IL-18 binding protein.
- Fluorescent resonance energy transfer
- Lipid rafts
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology