Two- and three-parameter equations for representation of retention data in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

A. Pappa-Louisi, P. Nikitas*, P. Balkatzopoulou, Christos D Malliakas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Two-parameter equations that describe the dependence of lnk upon φ, where k is the retention factor and φ the volume fraction of the organic modifier in the mobile phase, are examined in what concerns the underlying approximations and their performance to fit experimental data obtained from reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Using 293 experimental systems, it was found that the performance of these equations to describe lnk versus φ data is rather low, since the percentage of the systems that can be described satisfactorily ranges from 40 to 60% depending on the fitting equation. This percentage may be raised to 75%, if the discreteness effect is properly taken into account. A further improvement to 90% of the systems studied can be achieved only by the use of three-parameter equations, which may arise by refinements of the rough approximations of the two-parameter equations. Although the refinements do not lead always to better equations, we developed a new three-parameter expression of lnk that works more satisfactorily, since it combines simplicity, linearity of its adjustable parameters and the highest applicability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-41
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 9 2004


  • Liquid chromatography
  • Mathematical modelling
  • Retention models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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