Two-minute walk test performance by adults 18 to 85 years: Normative values, reliability, and responsiveness

Richard W. Bohannon*, Ying Chih Wang, Richard C. Gershon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

147 Scopus citations


Objectives To provide (1) normative reference values for the 2-minute walk test (2MWT), (2) reference equations for the 2MWT, and (3) information on the reliability and responsiveness of the 2MWT across the adult lifespan. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting General community settings. Participants A population-based sample of adult participants (N=1137) contributed data to this study, which was part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Norming Project. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 2MWT. Results Overall, the distance participants walked ranged from 64.6 to 300.8m (mean, 180.9m). Men walked farther than did women (189.4m vs 176.0m; t=6.8; df=1,135; P<.001). Significant correlations were observed between the 2MWT and age (r=-.41), height (r=.29), weight (r=-.16), and body mass index (r=-.32). Age and body mass index were used in the linear regression modeling to predict the 2MWT distance (R2=.55-.56). Test-retest reliability of the 2MWT as characterized by the intraclass correlation coefficient was.82 (95% confidence interval,.76-.87). Based on a standard error of measurement of 15.3m, the minimum detectable change for the 2MWT was 42.5m. Conclusions The study presents norms of the 2MWT established by the NIH Toolbox. The norms can be used to determine the presence of limitations in walking endurance across the lifespan.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)472-477
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015


  • Exercise test
  • Physical endurance
  • Psychometrics
  • Rehabilitation
  • Walking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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