Purpose Two-Step Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy for high undescended testes allows for mobilization of the testicle to the scrotal position while preserving perfusion by collateral circulation after gonadal vessel ligation. Although used for decades, the long-term efficacy of this procedure has not been reported. We present our 28-year clinical experience with this technique. Materials and Methods We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients who underwent 2-step Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy at our institution between 1982 and 2009. Patients were excluded if either step was performed elsewhere or if followup was less than 6 months. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine associations between clinical, surgical and anatomical factors and testicular viability at last followup. Results A total of 62 patients (79 testes) met inclusion criteria. Median followup was 3.1 years (range 0.6 to 20). Based on the most recent examination/ultrasound, 70.9% of testicles were considered to be normal, with the remainder exhibiting relative (15.2%) or complete (14.9%) atrophy. Of the 10 testes assessed at or after puberty 6 were normal and 4 showed relative atrophy. On bivariate and multivariate analyses only an open second stage approach was associated with normal testicular viability, with 69.9% of normal vs 18.9% of completely atrophic testes being managed by an open approach (p = 0.0084). Conclusions Thought to be highly effective in short-term followup, our data suggest that 2-step Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy leads to complete testicular viability in 70.9% of cases. This viability is strongly associated with an open second step.
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