Ultra-rapid, Free-breathing, Real-time Cardiac Cine MRI Using GRASP Amplified with View Sharing and KWIC Filtering

Lexiaozi Fan*, Kyungpyo Hong, Bradley D. Allen, Rupsa Paul, James C. Carr, Sarah Zhang, Rod Passman, Joshua D. Robinson, Daniel C. Lee, Cynthia K. Rigsby, Daniel Kim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To achieve ultra-high temporal resolution (approximately 20 msec) in free-breathing, real-time cardiac cine MRI using golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP) reconstruction amplified with view sharing (VS) and k-space–weighted image contrast (KWIC) filtering. Materials and Methods: Fourteen pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (mean age [SD], 9 years ± 2; 13 male) and 10 adult patients with arrhythmia (mean age, 62 years ± 8; nine male) who underwent both standard breath-hold cine and free-breathing real-time cine using GRASP were retrospectively identified. To achieve high temporal resolution, each time frame was reconstructed using six radial spokes, corresponding to acceleration factors ranging from 24 to 32. To compensate for loss in spatial resolution resulting from over-regularization in GRASP, VS and KWIC filtering were incorporated. The blur metric, visual image quality scores, and biventricular parameters were compared between clinical and real-time cine images. Results: In pediatric patients, the incorporation of VS and KWIC into GRASP (ie, GRASP + VS + KWIC) produced significantly (P < .05) sharper x-y-t (blur metric: 0.36 ± 0.03, 0.41 ± 0.03, 0.48 ± 0.03, respectively) and x-y-f (blur metric: 0.28 ± 0.02, 0.31 ± 0.03, 0.37 ± 0.03, respectively) component images compared with GRASP + VS and conventional GRASP. Only the noise score differed significantly between GRASP + VS + KWIC and clinical cine; all visual scores were above the clinically acceptable (3.0) cutoff point. Biventricular volumetric parameters strongly correlated (R2 > 0.85) between clinical and real-time cine images reconstructed with GRASP + VS + KWIC and were in good agreement (relative error < 6% for all parameters). In adult patients, the visual scores of all categories were significantly lower (P < .05) for clinical cine compared with real-time cine with GRASP + VS + KWIC, except for noise (P = .08). Conclusion: Incorporating VS and KWIC filtering into GRASP reconstruction enables ultra-high temporal resolution (approximately 2msec) without significant loss in spatial resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere230107
JournalRadiology: Cardiothoracic Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024


  • Arrhythmia
  • Cine
  • Compressed Sensing
  • Free-Breathing
  • Pediatrics
  • Radial k-Space
  • Real-Time
  • View Sharing
  • k-Space–weighted Image Contrast Filtering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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