Ultra-sensitive SWIR FPA with enhanced quantum efficiency based on electron multi-injector

Simone Bianconi, Hooman Mohseni*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


By leveraging a three-dimensional device structure to decouple the optical and electronic areas of the detectors, Electron Injector (EI) technology has proven capable of surpassing the current performance of commercial short-wave infrared (SWIR) cameras. The improvement in sensitivity enabled by a nanoscale electronic area, however, comes at the cost of a decrease in quantum efficiency: the diffusion length of the minority carriers limits the area over which a photo-generated carrier can be collected at the small electron injector junction before recombining. This intrinsic limitation hinders the prospect of further improvements of the EI detector performance. We here present a novel device architecture consisting of multiple nanoscale electron injectors connected to the same contact and constituting one individual pixel: by appropriate spacing of the injectors within the diffusion length of the photogenerated excess carriers, the fill factor of such multi-injector pixel can be considerably improved. The presented design was successfully implemented into an integrated FPA for SWIR imaging, showing excellent pixel yield, and a sensitivity of ∼10 photons. While the high sensitivity is enabled by the small size of the 1μm injectors, the multi-injector design allows to achieve an area fill factor or ∼20% of the 30x30μm pixel area, which is considerably higher than that of a single-injector design. In summary, we demonstrate a highly sensitive SWIR FPA based on 1μm electron multi-injector design, which allows for a substantial improvement of the imager's quantum efficiency and sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationQuantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVII
EditorsManijeh Razeghi, Jay S. Lewis, Giti A. Khodaparast, Pedram Khalili
ISBN (Electronic)9781510633391
StatePublished - 2020
EventQuantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVII 2020 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: Feb 2 2020Feb 6 2020

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceQuantum Sensing and Nano Electronics and Photonics XVII 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Electron Injector detector
  • FPA
  • Infrared imaging
  • Quantum efficiency
  • SWIR detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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