Patients with diabetes comprise an extremely complex subset of patients for the vascular surgeon. Often, they have numerous comorbidities that can further complicate matters. The diabetic environment is highly complex and the interplay of various diseases makes this an extremely challenging condition to manage. Knowing the mechanisms by which diabetes inflicts adverse microscopic changes in the vasculature allows the clinician to anticipate problems and minimize the heightened risks observed in diabetic patients undergoing surgery. In this review, we will illustrate how diabetes affects the vasculature and how the molecular and cellular derangements that occur in diabetic environments lead to these pathophysiologic consequences.
- endothelial progenitor cells
- neointimal hyperplasia
- reactive oxygen species
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine