Unexpected physical phenomena indicated by FDTD modeling of the sigma-60 deep hyperthermia applicator

Christopher E. Reuter*, Alien Taflove, Vythialingam Sathiaseelan, Melinda Piket-May, Bharat B. Mittal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


We investigate the numerical convergence properties of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) models of the BSD-2000 Sigma60 annular phased array used for deep hyperthermia. The FDTD modeling data indicate unexpected physical phenomena for the case of Sigma-60 excitation of an elliptical tissue phantom embedded in a circular water bolus. These phenomena include: 1) high-Q energy storage; 2) electromagnetic (EM) mode flipping within the water bolus/phantom; and 3) whispering-gallery transmission of energy to the opposite side of the phantom relative to the exciting dipole pair. We conclude that these phenomena substantially impact the FDTD numerical modeling of this system, and further conclude that the whispering-gallery effect can impact clinical applications of the Sigma-60.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)313-319
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 1998


  • Electromagnetic fields
  • FDTD
  • Hyperthermia
  • Modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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