Unique genetic profiles from cerebrospinal fluid cell-free DNA in leptomeningeal metastases of EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer: A new medium of liquid biopsy

Y. S. Li, B. Y. Jiang, J. J. Yang, X. C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Y. Ye, W. Z. Zhong, H. Y. Tu, H. J. Chen, Z. Wang, C. R. Xu, B. C. Wang, H. J. Du, S. Chuai, H. Han-Zhang, J. Su, Q. Zhou, X. N. Yang, W. B. Guo, H. H. YanY. H. Liu, L. X. Yan, B. Huang, M. M. Zheng, Yi Long Wu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are more frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Due to limited access to leptomeningeal lesions, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a source of liquid biopsy in patients with LM. Patients and methods: Primary tumor, CSF, and plasma in NSCLC with LM were tested by next-generation sequencing. In total, 45 patients with suspected LM underwent lumbar puncture, and those with EGFR mutations diagnosed with LM were enrolled. Results: A total of 28 patients were enrolled in this cohort; CSF and plasma were available in 26 patients, respectively. Driver genes were detected in 100% (26/26), 84.6% (22/26), and 73.1% (19/26) of samples comprising CSF cell-free DNA (cfDNA), CSF precipitates, and plasma, respectively; 92.3% (24/26) of patients had much higher allele fractions in CSF cfDNA than the other two media. Unique genetic profiles were captured in CSF cfDNA compared with those in plasma and primary tissue. Multiple copy number variations (CNVs) were mainly identified in CSF cfDNA, and MET copy number gain identified in 47.8% (11/23) of patients was the most frequent one, while other CNVs included ERBB2, KRAS, ALK, and MYC. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of TP53 was identified in 73.1% (19/26) CSF cfDNA, which was much higher than that in plasma (2/26, 7.7%; P < 0.001). There was a trend towards a higher frequency of concomitant resistance mutations in patients with TP53 LOH than those without (70.6% versus 33.3%; P=0.162). EGFR T790M was identified in CSF cfDNA of 30.4% (7/23) of patients who experienced TKI progression. Conclusion: CSF cfDNA could reveal the unique genetic profiles of LM and should be considered as the most representative liquid biopsy medium for LM in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)945-952
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Volume29
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • CfDNA
  • EGFR mutations
  • Leptomeningeal metastases
  • Liquid biopsy
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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