United we stand? Perceived loyalty of dual nationals, multiracial people, and dual state residents

Rachel D. Fine*, Nour S. Kteily, Jacqueline M. Chen, Steven O. Roberts, Arnold K. Ho

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


As multiracial children of foreign-born parents, Kamala Harris and Barack Obama embody diversity in politics for many perceivers. Yet some have also questioned their loyalty to their respective groups. We explored perceptions of dual group members’ (DGM; dual nationals, multiracial people, and dual state residents) loyalty among first-party (those who share a group membership with a DGM target) and third-party perceivers (those who do not). Studies 1a–2b showed that first- and third-party perceivers rated DGMs as less loyal than their single group member (SGM) counterparts. However, only first- (Studies 2a–2b) but not third-party (Studies 1a–1b) perceivers preferred SGMs to DGMs for loyalty-dependent roles. Study 3 revealed that perceivers who were higher in patriotism supported DGMs for loyalty-dependent roles less when they were first- (vs. third) party observers. These studies suggest that perceivers readily intuit that DGMs are less loyal than SGMs and, under some conditions, this may lead to discrimination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGroup Processes and Intergroup Relations
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • dual national
  • intergroup relations
  • loyalty
  • multiracial
  • political psychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Communication
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science


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