Diverse physical systems are characterized by their response to small perturbations. Near thermodynamic equilibrium, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem provides a powerful theoretical and experimental tool to determine the nature of response by observing spontaneous equilibrium fluctuations. In this spirit, we derive here a collection of equalities and inequalities valid arbitrarily far from equilibrium that constrain the response of nonequilibrium steady states in terms of the strength of nonequilibrium driving. Our work opens new avenues for characterizing nonequilibrium response. As illustrations, we show how our results rationalize the energetic requirements of common biochemical motifs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)