Universal Thermodynamic Bounds on Nonequilibrium Response with Biochemical Applications

Jeremy A. Owen, Todd R. Gingrich, Jordan M. Horowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Diverse physical systems are characterized by their response to small perturbations. Near thermodynamic equilibrium, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem provides a powerful theoretical and experimental tool to determine the nature of response by observing spontaneous equilibrium fluctuations. In this spirit, we derive here a collection of equalities and inequalities valid arbitrarily far from equilibrium that constrain the response of nonequilibrium steady states in terms of the strength of nonequilibrium driving. Our work opens new avenues for characterizing nonequilibrium response. As illustrations, we show how our results rationalize the energetic requirements of common biochemical motifs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number011066
JournalPhysical Review X
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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