Unravelling cardiovascular disease using four dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Vivian P. Kamphuis, Jos J.M. Westenberg*, Roel L.F. van der Palen, Nico A. Blom, Albert de Roos, Rob van der Geest, Mohammed Elbaz, Arno A.W. Roest

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Knowledge of normal and abnormal flow patterns in the human cardiovascular system increases our understanding of normal physiology and may help unravel the complex pathophysiological mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a suitable technique that enables visualization of in vivo blood flow patterns and quantification of parameters that could potentially be of prognostic value in the disease process. In this review, current image processing tools that are used for comprehensive visualization and quantification of blood flow and energy distribution in the heart and great vessels will be discussed. Also, imaging biomarkers extracted from 4D flow CMR will be reviewed that have been shown to distinguish between normal and abnormal flow patterns. Furthermore, current applications of 4D flow CMR in the heart and great vessels will be discussed, showing its potential as an additional diagnostic modality which could aid in disease management and timing of surgical intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1069-1081
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


  • 4-Dimensional flow
  • Blood flow
  • Cardiovascular magnetic resonance
  • Velocity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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