Diffuse infiltration of malignant human glioma cells into surrounding brain structures occurs through the activation of multigenic programs. We recently showed that angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) induces glioma invasion through the activation of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2). Here, we report that up-regulation of Ang2, MMP-2, membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP), and laminin 5 γ 2 (LN 5 γ 2) in tumor cells correlates with glioma invasion. Analyses of 57 clinical human glioma biopsies of World Health Organization grade I to IV tumors displaying a distinct invasive edge and 39 glioma specimens that only contain the central region of the tumor showed that Ang2, MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and LN 5 γ 2 were co-overexpressed in invasive areas but not in the central regions of the glioma tissues. Statistical analyses revealed a significant link between the preferential expression of these molecules and invasiveness. Protein analyses of microdissected primary glioma tissue showed up-regulation and activation of MT1-MMP and LN 5 γ 2 at the invasive edge of the tumors, supporting this observation. Concordantly, in human U87MG glioma xenografts engineered to express Ang2, increased expression of MT1-MMP and LN 5 γ 2, along with MMP-2 up-regulation, in actively invading glioma cells was also evident. In cell culture, stimulation of glioma cells by overexpressing Ang2 or exposure to exogenous Ang2 promoted the expression and activation of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and LN 5 γ 2. These results suggest that up-regulation of Ang2, MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and LN 5 γ 2 is associated with the invasiveness displayed by human gliomas and that induction of these molecules by Ang2 may be essential for glioma invasion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine