Update on sarcoidosis

Dianna Liu, Andrea D. Birnbaum*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Purpose of review: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease, characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas. Ocular inflammation is often the first manifestation of the disease, and uveitis can be the driving force for treatment. The goal of this review was to provide an update on the relationship between ocular and systemic disease, with a particular focus on cardiac sarcoidosis. Recent findings: Chest radiograph remains the best imaging tool for sarcoidosis, although newer modalities, such as wholebody PET scan, cardiac MRI, and chest computed tomography (CT), may provide additional valuable information in select populations. Ocular sarcoidosis is a marker for vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial rigidity. Choroidal involvement is associated with an increased risk of cardiac disease requiring intervention. Cardiac disease continues to be underdiagnosed in patients with sarcoidosis, although it remains a leading cause of death. Summary: Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease, and ophthalmologists should continually assess patients for extraocular manifestations. Although no screening guidelines exist, baseline ECGs on asymptomatic patients might identify those at risk for adverse cardiac events. Patients with symptoms of cardiac disease, including palpitations, chest pain, and dyspnea, should have an evaluation by a cardiologist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-516
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent opinion in ophthalmology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Oct 9 2015


  • Cardiac disease
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Uveitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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