Update on the diagnosis and management of gestational trophoblastic disease

Hextan Y.S. Ngan*, Michael J. Seckl, Ross S. Berkowitz, Yang Xiang, François Golfier, Paradan K. Sekharan, John R. Lurain, Leon Massuger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

261 Scopus citations


Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) arises from abnormal placenta and is composed of a spectrum of premalignant to malignant disorders. Changes in epidemiology of GTD have been noted in various countries. In addition to histology, molecular genetic studies can help in the diagnostic pathway. Earlier detection of molar pregnancy by ultrasound has resulted in changes in clinical presentation and decreased morbidity from uterine evacuation. Follow-up with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is essential for early diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). The duration of hCG monitoring varies depending on histology type and regression rate. Low-risk GTN (FIGO Stages I–III: score <7) is treated with single-agent chemotherapy but may require additional agents; although scores 5–6 are associated with more drug resistance, overall survival approaches 100%. High-risk GTN (FIGO Stages II–III: score >7 and Stage IV) is treated with multiple agent chemotherapy, with or without adjuvant surgery for excision of resistant foci of disease or radiotherapy for brain metastases, achieving a survival rate of approximately 90%. Gentle induction chemotherapy helps reduce early deaths in patients with extensive tumor burden, but late mortality still occurs from recurrent resistant tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-85
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
StatePublished - Oct 2018


  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor
  • FIGO Cancer Report
  • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
  • Moles
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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