Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio and intake of sodium and potassium among men and women from multiethnic general populations: the INTERSALT Study

for the INTERSALT Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Na/K ratio may be more strongly related to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease than sodium or potassium. The casual urine Na/K ratio can provide prompt on-site feedback, and with repeated measurements, may provide useful individual estimates of the 24-h ratio. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for sodium and potassium intake, but no generally accepted guideline prevails for the Na/K ratio. We used standardized data on 24 h and casual urinary electrolyte excretion obtained from the INTERSALT Study for 10,065 individuals aged 20–59 years from 32 countries (52 populations). Associations between the casual urinary Na/K ratio and the 24-h sodium and potassium excretion of individuals were assessed by correlation and stratification analyses. The mean 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 156.0 mmol/24 h and 55.2 mmol/24 h, respectively; the mean 24-h urinary Na/K molar ratio was 3.24. Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r) for the casual urinary Na/K ratio with 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 0.42 and −0.34, respectively, and these were 0.57 and −0.48 for the 24-h ratio. The urinary Na/K ratio predicted a 24-h urine Na excretion of <85 mmol/day (the WHO recommended guidelines) with a sensitivity of 99.7% and 94.0%, specificity of 39.5% and 48.0%, and positive predictive value of 96.3% and 61.1% at the cutoff point of 1 in 24 h and casual urine Na/K ratios, respectively. A urinary Na/K molar ratio <1 may be a useful indicator for adherence to the WHO recommended levels of sodium and, to a lesser extent, the potassium intake across different populations; however, cutoff points for Na/K ratio may be tuned for localization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1590-1598
Number of pages9
JournalHypertension Research
Volume42
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

Keywords

  • 24-h urine excretion
  • Sodium-to-potassium ratio
  • casual urine
  • potassium
  • sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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