Urologists and nephrologists provide care to many mutual patients. This review addresses the initial management of upper urinary tract issues commonly seen in nephrology practice. Patients with hematuria without clear benign causes should be referred to urologists for workup to rule out urologic malignancies. Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria after negative workup should be followed with annual urinalysis with repeat urologic evaluation if it persists after 5years. Hydronephrosis is another commonly encountered diagnosis. Functional urinary obstruction should be excluded using a diuretic nuclear renography in the appropriate population. Asymptomatic, stable hydronephrosis can be observed, but those with acute, symptomatic obstruction, or patients with suspected obstruction with signs of infection, should seek urologic care for intervention. Hydronephrosis is common in pregnant women; symptomatic patients merit intervention similar to nonpregnant patients. The management of patients with an acute stone episode is similar to that for those with hydronephrosis. Patients with first stone episodes need evaluation for risk factors for stone formation, whereas patients with identified risk factors or recurrent stones need comprehensive metabolic workup. Patients with incidentally found kidney masses should be referred to urology for possible intervention when they have solid kidney masses or cystic masses that need further evaluation.
- Kidney mass
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