Use and Accuracy of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis for Ovarian Masses in Children and Adolescents

Midwest Pediatric Surgery Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Study Objective: Describe the current practice patterns and diagnostic accuracy of frozen section (FS) pathology for children and adolescents with ovarian masses Design: Prospective cohort study from 2018 to 2021 Setting: Eleven children's hospitals Participants: Females age 6-21 years undergoing surgical management of an ovarian mass Interventions: Obtaining intraoperative FS pathology Main Outcome Measure: Diagnostic accuracy of FS pathology Results: Of 691 patients who underwent surgical management of an ovarian mass, FS was performed in 27 (3.9%), of which 9 (33.3%) had a final malignant pathology. Among FS patients, 12 of 27 (44.4%) underwent ovary-sparing surgery, and 15 of 27 (55.5%) underwent oophorectomy with or without other procedures. FS results were disparate from final pathology in 7 of 27 (25.9%) cases. FS had a sensitivity of 44.4% and specificity of 94.4% for identifying malignancy, with a c-statistic of 0.69. Malignant diagnoses missed on FS included serous borderline tumor (n = 1), mucinous borderline tumor (n = 2), mucinous carcinoma (n = 1), and immature teratoma (n = 1). FS did not guide intervention in 10 of 27 (37.0%) patients: 9 with benign FS underwent oophorectomy, and 1 with malignant FS did not undergo oophorectomy. Of the 9 patients who underwent oophorectomy with benign FS, 5 (55.6%) had benign and 4 (44.4%) had malignant final pathology. Conclusions: FSs are infrequently utilized for pediatric and adolescent ovarian masses and could be inaccurate for predicting malignancy and guiding operative decision-making. We recommend continued assessment and refinement of guidance before any standardization of use of FS to assist with intraoperative decision-making for surgical resection and staging in children and adolescents with ovarian masses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-159
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
Issue number2
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Frozen section
  • Ovary-sparing surgery
  • Pediatric ovarian mass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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