Use of antibiotic prophylaxis for tooth extractions, dental implants, and periodontal surgical procedures

Katie J. Suda*, Heather Henschel, Ursula Patel, Margaret A. Fitzpatrick, Charlesnika T. Evans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Guidelines for antibiotics prior to dental procedures for patients with specific cardiac conditions and prosthetic joints have changed, reducing indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. In addition to guidelines focused on patient comorbidities, systematic reviews specific to dental extractions and implants support preprocedure antibiotics for all patients. However, data on dentist adherence to these recommendations are scarce. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of veterans undergoing tooth extractions, dental implants, and periodontal procedures. Patients receiving antibiotics for oral or nonoral infections were excluded. Data were collected through manual review of the health record. Results Of 183 veterans (mean age, 62 years; 94.5% male) undergoing the included procedures, 82.5% received antibiotic prophylaxis (mean duration, 7.1 ± 1.6 days). Amoxicillin (71.3% of antibiotics) and clindamycin (23.8%) were prescribed most frequently; 44.7% of patients prescribed clindamycin were not labeled as penicillin allergic. Of those who received prophylaxis, 92.1% received postprocedure antibiotics only, 2.6% received preprocedural antibiotics only, and 5.3% received pre- and postprocedure antibiotics. When prophylaxis was indicated, 87.3% of patients received an antibiotic. However, 84.9% received postprocedure antibiotics when preprocedure administration was indicated. While the majority of antibiotics were indicated, only 8.2% of patients received antibiotics appropriately. The primary reason was secondary to prolonged duration. Three months postprocedure, there were no occurrences of Clostridium difficile infection, infective endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections, or postprocedure oral infections. Conclusion The majority of patients undergoing a dental procedure received antibiotic prophylaxis as indicated. Although patients for whom antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated should have received a single preprocedure dose, most antibiotics were prescribed postprocedure. Dental stewardship efforts should ensure appropriate antibiotic timing, indication, and duration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofx250
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Keywords

  • antibiotic prophylaxis
  • dental implant
  • dentist
  • periodontal surgery
  • tooth extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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