Use of organism identification by 16S ribosomal RNA polymerase chain reaction to shorten antimicrobial length of therapy

Elise M. Gilbert, Filiz Yucebay, Mike Malczynski, Danielle Smith, John S. Esterly, Chao Qi, Michael Postelnick, Milena M. McLaughlin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Organism detection by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) PCR followed by amplicon sequencing identification may help guide antimicrobial treatment in culture-negative patients. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of a positive versus negative 16S rRNA PCR on antibiotic length of therapy (LOT) and rate of antibiotic discontinuation. Methods Patients with a sterile site, direct-specimen 16S rRNA PCR negative, and suspected active infection were matched 1:1 with 16S rRNA PCR positive patients based on specimen site and retrospectively evaluated. Results Ninety patients were included (n = 45 positive and negative). 16S rRNA PCR negative patients had shorter median LOT (33 days [IQR 8–46] versus 43 days [IQR 29–51], P = 0.02). Antibiotics were discontinued more frequently in 16S rRNA PCR negative patients (38% versus 4%, P < 0.01). Conclusions For culture-negative patients with suspected sterile site infection, a negative, direct-specimen 16S rRNA PCR may help discontinue antibiotics and decrease LOT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)163-167
Number of pages5
JournalDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Volume88
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

Keywords

  • Antibiotic use
  • Polymerase chain reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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