Use of the Rand Structured Implicit Review Instrument for quality of care assessment

F. Lefevre*, J. Feinglass, P. R. Yarnold, G. J. Martin, J. Webster

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The Rand Structured Implicit Review Instrument is a 27-item instrument that rates process quality of care for patients with five common illnesses. This study reports on the use of this instrument for hospitalized patients with long lengths of stay. A total of 120 medical records were reviewed by multiple physician reviewers for patients discharged with congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. Mean inter-rater reliability was assessed for a subsample of six records by kappa score. A multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship between process ratings for the quality of documentation, assessment, monitoring, and therapy and overall quality of care scores, controlled for physician judgments about patients' prognosis and selected patient characteristics. Each reviewer also evaluated the instrument. Mean kappa for trichotomized ratings of quality of care was 0.50. The majority of all quality of care ratings were in the good or very good range (77.5%). The full regression model, including process subscale quality ratings, prognostic items, and patient characteristics, accounted for 38% of the total variance in the quality of care ratings. Items measuring the quality of assessment (p < 0.0001), therapy (p < 0.02) and monitoring (p < 0.01) were significant. Physicians accepted the use of such a form moderately well. The Rand quality of care form shows consistency in rating overall quality of care and individual dimensions of quality. Achieving a high level of inter-rater reliability is difficult with implicit review. By focusing on specific areas of potentially deficient care, structured review instruments can improve clinical quality improvement efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-228
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1993


  • Implicit review
  • Inter-rater reliability
  • Outcome bias
  • Peer review
  • Quality of care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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