Monitoring of the adequacy of myocardial protection with cardioplegia is nearly non-existent in clinical cardiac surgical practice and instead relies on well-defined protocols for delivery of cardioplegia often resulting in inadequate protection. We hypothesized that Near Infrared Spectroscopy technology could be useful in the monitoring of the myocardial oxygen state by attaching the monitors to the epicardium in a porcine model of cardiac surgery. The experiments were conducted with 3 different protocols of 2 pigs each for a total of 6 pigs. The objective was to induce episodic, oxygen supply-demand mismatch. Methods for decreased supply included decreasing coronary blood flow, coronary blood hypoxemia, coronary occlusion, hypovolemia, and hypotension. Methods for increase demand included rapid ventricular pacing and the administration of isoproterenol. Changes in myocardial tissue oximetry were measured and this measurement was then correlated with blood hemoglobin saturations of oxygen from coronary sinus blood samples. We found that decreases in myocardial oxygen supply or increases in demand due to any of the various experimental conditions led to decreases in both myocardial tissue oximetry and hemoglobin oxygen saturation of coronary sinus blood with recovery when the conditions were returned to baseline. Correlation between myocardial tissue oximetry and hemoglobin oxygen saturation of coronary sinus blood was moderate to strong under all tested conditions. This may have translational applications as a monitor of adequacy of myocardial protection and the detection of coronary occlusion.
- Cardiac surgery
- Myocardial protection
- Near infrared spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Informatics
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine