Using xenopus skin to study cilia development and function

Michael E. Werner, Brian J. Mitchell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

45 Scopus citations


Cilia are prevalent biological structures that are important for cell signaling and for generating fluid flow (or motility). Cilia are found throughout biology from single-celled organisms to vertebrates, and many model systems have been employed for their analysis. Here, we describe the use of Xenopus larval skin as a system for the study of ciliogenesis and ciliary function. In particular, we describe basic molecular and embryological manipulations and imaging techniques that have proven particularly useful for understanding the polarized beating of cilia and the generation of directed fluid flow (Werner & Mitchell, 2012). However, these same tools have the potential to benefit a large number of cilia-related biological questions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCilia, Part B
PublisherAcademic Press Inc
Number of pages27
ISBN (Print)9780123979445
StatePublished - 2013

Publication series

NameMethods in Enzymology
ISSN (Print)0076-6879
ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988


  • Xenopus
  • cilia
  • ciliated epithelia
  • ciliogenesis
  • planar cell polarity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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