Validation and psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire (BEDQ): Results of a multicentric study

Daniel Cisternas*, Tiffany Taft, Dustin A. Carlson, Esteban Glasinovic, Hugo Monrroy, Paula Rey, Albis Hani, Andres Ardila-Hani, Ana Maria Leguizamo, Claudio Bilder, Andres Ditaranto, Amanda Varela, Joaquin Agotegaray, Jose Maria Remes-Troche, Antonio Ruiz de León, Julio Pérez de la Serna, Ingrid Marin, Jordi Serra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: The recently developed Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire (BEDQ) evaluates esophageal obstructive symptoms. Its initial evaluation showed strong psychometric properties. The aims of this study were to (a) translate and validate an international Spanish version of BEDQ and (b) evaluate its psychometric properties in a large Hispano-American sample of symptomatic individuals. Methods: A Spanish BEDQ version was performed by Hispano-American experts using a Delphi process and reverse translation. Patients were prospectively recruited from seven centers in Spain and Latin America among individuals referred for high-resolution manometry (HRM). Patients completed several scores: Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS), Eckardt score (ES), Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire (GERDQ), and the BEDQ. Standardized psychometric analyses were performed. Key Results: A total of 426 patients were recruited. Spanish BEDQ showed excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91). Factor analysis confirmed its unidimensional character. Moderate significant correlations between BEDQ and other symptomatic scores were found, suggesting sufficient convergent validity. Patients with abnormal or obstructive HRM findings scored significantly higher when compared to normal or non-obstructive findings, respectively. Using a cutoff of 10, BEDQ showed a sensitivity of 65.38% and a specificity of 66.21% and an area under the curve of 0.71 for obstructive or major manometric diagnosis. Conclusions and Inferences: A widely usable Spanish BEDQ version has been validated. We confirm its excellent psychometric properties in our patients, confirming the appropriateness of its use in different populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere14025
JournalNeurogastroenterology and Motility
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire (BEDQ)
  • dysphagia evaluation
  • high-resolution manometry
  • psychometric evaluation
  • reliability
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Gastroenterology


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