Validation of near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probes in vivo with dual laser NIRF endoscope

Manisha Shrivastav, Elias Gounaris*, Mohammad W. Khan, Jeffrey Ko, Stacy H. Ryu, Matthew Bogyo, Andrew Larson, Terrence A. Barret, David J. Bentrem

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose The development of NIRF cathepsin activity probes offered the ability to visualize tumor associated tumor reaction and act as a surrogate marker to delineate the dysplastic lesions. One major type is a NIRF substrate of cathepsins (SBP), which is involved in catalytic way to produce high levels of fluorescence emission. The other major type (ABP) reacts with active cathepsins in stoichiometric manner since they bind covalently with their active center. Little is known about the sensitivity and the specificity of the NIRF probes to detect autochthonous developed dysplastic lesions. Dual laser NIRF endoscope provides a good tool to determine the efficiency of various NIRF probes in vivo in the same lesions. Experimental design In the current study, we validated both types of NIRF probes by using the dual laser NIRF endoscope to detect lesions colon cancer mouse model (TS4Cre/cAPC +/lox). Results The dual laser NIRF endoscope is emitting equal power with both lasers. It can detect with the same efficiency in 680 mode, as well as, 750 mode when NIFR probes of the same scaffold in vivo. When SBP and ABP were used, our results showed both probes are efficient enough to detect large polyps but small dysplastic lesions could not efficiently imaged with the ABP. Conclusions The dual laser NIRF endoscope is a powerful tool to validate probes. The probes that react catalytically with the active center of cathepsins are more efficient than the ones that react stoichiometrically in detecting small lesions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0206568
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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