Validity and Reliability of a (Brief) Diabetes “Survival Skills” Knowledge Test: KNOW Diabetes

Gretchen Youssef*, Edward H. Ip, Michelle Magee, Shyh Huei Chen, Amisha Wallia, Teresa Pollack, Emilie Touma, Clayton Bourges, Lynne Brecker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the KNOW Diabetes test, a survival skills knowledge test, in identifying essential self-care knowledge deficits in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The study was conducted in 3 United States cities among adults with T2DM. A pilot feasibility phase was followed by a validation phase. Both traditional and item response theory (IRT)–based analyses were conducted. Test items were scored against an answer key. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency evaluation using Cronbach’s alpha, IRT, reliability assessment using test-retest correlation, and construct validity analyses were conducted. Results: Consented adults (n = 280) with T2DM completed the study. In phase 1 (n = 53), the feasibility of implementation was demonstrated and resulted in a 15-question survey. In phase 2, participants (n = 227) completed the survey, with a subgroup (n = 54) completing it in a test-retest fashion. The test showed acceptable psychometric properties including unidimensionality, local independence, and differential item functioning. Concurrent validity testing showed that patients who are older, have a lower level of education, have Medicare or Medicaid, and have foot pain or numbness scored significantly lower than patients who did not. Divergent validity was assessed by testing differences between other comorbidities and revealed all tests to be nonsignificant. Conclusions: The KNOW Diabetes test is appropriate for identifying knowledge deficits in diabetes self-management survival skills.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-193
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes Educator
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)


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