Variable human phenotype associated with novel deletions of the PHOX2B gene

Lawrence J Jennings*, Min Yu, Casey M. Rand, Nicole Kravis, Elizabeth M. Berry-Kravis, Pallavi P. Patwari, Debra E Weese-Mayer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Clinical testing for PHOX2B mutations is widely used for patients with any symptoms suggestive of hypoventilation (with/without anatomic/physiologic autonomic dysregulation), though not necessarily with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype. Consequently, a multitude of referrals for clinical PHOX2B testing (fragment analysis of the 20 polyalanine repeat region and/or sequencing of entire coding region) have no identifiable mutation. Whole gene deletions/duplications have recently been identified as a common disease-causing mechanism, but have not been reported in a clinical population referred for PHOX2B testing. The objective of this study was to determine if PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion/duplication would be identified in a subset of patients referred for PHOX2B testing. Hypothesis We hypothesized that PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion or duplication would be identified in a subset of cases who were referred for genetic testing but not found to have a PHOX2B mutation with currently available clinical PHOX2B testing. Methods Genomic DNA samples from patients that tested negative for PHOX2B mutations using fragment analysis and/or sequencing, and control samples, were screened for PHOX2B exon deletions/duplications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with confirmation by array comparative genomic hybridization. Results Deletions of/in PHOX2B were identified in 4/250 patients and 0/261 controls. The deletions ranged from 6,216 base pairs (involving only PHOX2B exon 3) to 2.6 megabases (involving all of PHOX2B and 12 other genes). The case with PHOX2B partial exon 3 deletion had a CCHS-compatible phenotype (hypoventilation, Hirschsprung disease). Phenotypes for the other three cases, all PHOX2B whole-gene deletions, were varied including: (1) apparent life threatening event, (2) full CCHS necessitating artificial ventilation with ganglioneuroblastoma, and (3) hypoventilation during sleep. Family studies of two of the four probands showed these deletions to be maternally inherited; the mothers also had phenotypic findings of autonomic dysfunction. Conclusions PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion should be considered as another mechanism of disease which may include CCHS, Hirschsprung disease, and/or tumors of neural crest origin, although the genotype-phenotype relationship requires further clarification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-161
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Pulmonology
Volume47
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2012

Fingerprint

Gene Deletion
Exons
Phenotype
Hypoventilation
Gene Duplication
Hirschsprung Disease
Mutation
Ganglioneuroblastoma
Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Genetic Testing
Base Pairing
Sleep
Referral and Consultation
Genotype
Mothers
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
DNA
Population
Genes

Keywords

  • Hirschsprung disease (HSCR)
  • alveolar hypoventilation
  • autonomic dysregulation
  • congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS)
  • tumor of neural crest origin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Jennings, Lawrence J ; Yu, Min ; Rand, Casey M. ; Kravis, Nicole ; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M. ; Patwari, Pallavi P. ; Weese-Mayer, Debra E. / Variable human phenotype associated with novel deletions of the PHOX2B gene. In: Pediatric Pulmonology. 2012 ; Vol. 47, No. 2. pp. 153-161.
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title = "Variable human phenotype associated with novel deletions of the PHOX2B gene",
abstract = "Background Clinical testing for PHOX2B mutations is widely used for patients with any symptoms suggestive of hypoventilation (with/without anatomic/physiologic autonomic dysregulation), though not necessarily with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype. Consequently, a multitude of referrals for clinical PHOX2B testing (fragment analysis of the 20 polyalanine repeat region and/or sequencing of entire coding region) have no identifiable mutation. Whole gene deletions/duplications have recently been identified as a common disease-causing mechanism, but have not been reported in a clinical population referred for PHOX2B testing. The objective of this study was to determine if PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion/duplication would be identified in a subset of patients referred for PHOX2B testing. Hypothesis We hypothesized that PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion or duplication would be identified in a subset of cases who were referred for genetic testing but not found to have a PHOX2B mutation with currently available clinical PHOX2B testing. Methods Genomic DNA samples from patients that tested negative for PHOX2B mutations using fragment analysis and/or sequencing, and control samples, were screened for PHOX2B exon deletions/duplications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with confirmation by array comparative genomic hybridization. Results Deletions of/in PHOX2B were identified in 4/250 patients and 0/261 controls. The deletions ranged from 6,216 base pairs (involving only PHOX2B exon 3) to 2.6 megabases (involving all of PHOX2B and 12 other genes). The case with PHOX2B partial exon 3 deletion had a CCHS-compatible phenotype (hypoventilation, Hirschsprung disease). Phenotypes for the other three cases, all PHOX2B whole-gene deletions, were varied including: (1) apparent life threatening event, (2) full CCHS necessitating artificial ventilation with ganglioneuroblastoma, and (3) hypoventilation during sleep. Family studies of two of the four probands showed these deletions to be maternally inherited; the mothers also had phenotypic findings of autonomic dysfunction. Conclusions PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion should be considered as another mechanism of disease which may include CCHS, Hirschsprung disease, and/or tumors of neural crest origin, although the genotype-phenotype relationship requires further clarification.",
keywords = "Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), alveolar hypoventilation, autonomic dysregulation, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), tumor of neural crest origin",
author = "Jennings, {Lawrence J} and Min Yu and Rand, {Casey M.} and Nicole Kravis and Berry-Kravis, {Elizabeth M.} and Patwari, {Pallavi P.} and Weese-Mayer, {Debra E}",
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Variable human phenotype associated with novel deletions of the PHOX2B gene. / Jennings, Lawrence J; Yu, Min; Rand, Casey M.; Kravis, Nicole; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M.; Patwari, Pallavi P.; Weese-Mayer, Debra E.

In: Pediatric Pulmonology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 01.02.2012, p. 153-161.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Variable human phenotype associated with novel deletions of the PHOX2B gene

AU - Jennings, Lawrence J

AU - Yu, Min

AU - Rand, Casey M.

AU - Kravis, Nicole

AU - Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M.

AU - Patwari, Pallavi P.

AU - Weese-Mayer, Debra E

PY - 2012/2/1

Y1 - 2012/2/1

N2 - Background Clinical testing for PHOX2B mutations is widely used for patients with any symptoms suggestive of hypoventilation (with/without anatomic/physiologic autonomic dysregulation), though not necessarily with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype. Consequently, a multitude of referrals for clinical PHOX2B testing (fragment analysis of the 20 polyalanine repeat region and/or sequencing of entire coding region) have no identifiable mutation. Whole gene deletions/duplications have recently been identified as a common disease-causing mechanism, but have not been reported in a clinical population referred for PHOX2B testing. The objective of this study was to determine if PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion/duplication would be identified in a subset of patients referred for PHOX2B testing. Hypothesis We hypothesized that PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion or duplication would be identified in a subset of cases who were referred for genetic testing but not found to have a PHOX2B mutation with currently available clinical PHOX2B testing. Methods Genomic DNA samples from patients that tested negative for PHOX2B mutations using fragment analysis and/or sequencing, and control samples, were screened for PHOX2B exon deletions/duplications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with confirmation by array comparative genomic hybridization. Results Deletions of/in PHOX2B were identified in 4/250 patients and 0/261 controls. The deletions ranged from 6,216 base pairs (involving only PHOX2B exon 3) to 2.6 megabases (involving all of PHOX2B and 12 other genes). The case with PHOX2B partial exon 3 deletion had a CCHS-compatible phenotype (hypoventilation, Hirschsprung disease). Phenotypes for the other three cases, all PHOX2B whole-gene deletions, were varied including: (1) apparent life threatening event, (2) full CCHS necessitating artificial ventilation with ganglioneuroblastoma, and (3) hypoventilation during sleep. Family studies of two of the four probands showed these deletions to be maternally inherited; the mothers also had phenotypic findings of autonomic dysfunction. Conclusions PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion should be considered as another mechanism of disease which may include CCHS, Hirschsprung disease, and/or tumors of neural crest origin, although the genotype-phenotype relationship requires further clarification.

AB - Background Clinical testing for PHOX2B mutations is widely used for patients with any symptoms suggestive of hypoventilation (with/without anatomic/physiologic autonomic dysregulation), though not necessarily with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype. Consequently, a multitude of referrals for clinical PHOX2B testing (fragment analysis of the 20 polyalanine repeat region and/or sequencing of entire coding region) have no identifiable mutation. Whole gene deletions/duplications have recently been identified as a common disease-causing mechanism, but have not been reported in a clinical population referred for PHOX2B testing. The objective of this study was to determine if PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion/duplication would be identified in a subset of patients referred for PHOX2B testing. Hypothesis We hypothesized that PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion or duplication would be identified in a subset of cases who were referred for genetic testing but not found to have a PHOX2B mutation with currently available clinical PHOX2B testing. Methods Genomic DNA samples from patients that tested negative for PHOX2B mutations using fragment analysis and/or sequencing, and control samples, were screened for PHOX2B exon deletions/duplications by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with confirmation by array comparative genomic hybridization. Results Deletions of/in PHOX2B were identified in 4/250 patients and 0/261 controls. The deletions ranged from 6,216 base pairs (involving only PHOX2B exon 3) to 2.6 megabases (involving all of PHOX2B and 12 other genes). The case with PHOX2B partial exon 3 deletion had a CCHS-compatible phenotype (hypoventilation, Hirschsprung disease). Phenotypes for the other three cases, all PHOX2B whole-gene deletions, were varied including: (1) apparent life threatening event, (2) full CCHS necessitating artificial ventilation with ganglioneuroblastoma, and (3) hypoventilation during sleep. Family studies of two of the four probands showed these deletions to be maternally inherited; the mothers also had phenotypic findings of autonomic dysfunction. Conclusions PHOX2B exon or whole gene deletion should be considered as another mechanism of disease which may include CCHS, Hirschsprung disease, and/or tumors of neural crest origin, although the genotype-phenotype relationship requires further clarification.

KW - Hirschsprung disease (HSCR)

KW - alveolar hypoventilation

KW - autonomic dysregulation

KW - congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS)

KW - tumor of neural crest origin

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