Variation in clinical and patient-reported outcomes among complex heart failure with preserved ejection fraction phenotypes

Kelsey M. Flint*, Sanjiv J. Shah, Eldrin F. Lewis, David P. Kao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Aims: The aim of this study is to use six previously described heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) phenotypes to describe differences in (i) the biological response to spironolactone, (ii) clinical endpoints, and (iii) patient-reported health status by HFpEF phenotype and treatment arm in the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial (TOPCAT). Methods and results: We analysed 1767 patients in TOPCAT from the Americas. Using 11 clinical variables, patients were classified according to six HFpEF phenotypes previously identified in the I-PRESERVE and CHARM-Preserved studies. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) measured health status. All phenotypes showed increase in potassium with spironolactone, although only three phenotypes showed significant increase in creatinine, and two phenotypes showed significant decrease in systolic blood pressure. Rate of the TOPCAT primary outcome (cardiovascular death, aborted cardiac arrest, or heart failure hospitalization) differed by HFpEF phenotype (P < 0.001) but not by treatment arm within each HFpEF phenotype. Baseline KCCQ score differed by HFpEF phenotype (P < 0.001), although some phenotypes with poor health status had lower rates of the TOPCAT primary outcome, and some phenotypes with better health status had higher rates of the TOPCAT primary outcome. However, within 3/6 phenotypes, higher baseline KCCQ score was associated with lower risk of the TOPCAT primary outcome. Change in KCCQ scores at 4 and 12 months did not differ among HFpEF phenotypes overall or by treatment arm. Conclusions: Complex, data-driven HFpEF phenotypes differ according to biological response to spironolactone, baseline health status, and clinical endpoints. These differences may inform the design of targeted clinical trials focusing on improvement in outcomes most relevant for specific HFpEF phenotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)811-824
Number of pages14
JournalESC Heart Failure
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • HFpEF
  • Health status
  • Heart failure
  • Hospitalization
  • Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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