Variation in Guideline Concordant Active Surveillance Followup in Diverse Urology Practices

Amy N. Luckenbaugh, Gregory B. Auffenberg, Scott R. Hawken, Apoorv Dhir, Susan Linsell, Sanjeev Kaul, David C. Miller*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Purpose We examined the frequency of followup prostate specific antigen testing and prostate biopsy among men treated with active surveillance in the academic and community urology practices comprising MUSIC (Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative). Materials and Methods MUSIC is a consortium of 42 practices that maintains a prospective clinical registry with validated clinical data on all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at participating sites. We identified all patients in MUSIC practices who entered active surveillance and had at least 2 years of continuous followup. After determining the frequency of repeat prostate specific antigen testing and prostate biopsy, we calculated rates of concordance with NCCN Guidelines® recommendations (ie at least 3 prostate specific antigen tests and 1 surveillance biopsy) collaborative-wide and across individual practices. Results We identified 513 patients who entered active surveillance from January 2012 through September 2013 and had at least 2 years of followup. Among the 431 men (84%) who remained on active surveillance for 2 years 132 (30.6%) underwent followup surveillance testing at a frequency that was concordant with NCCN® (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) recommendations. At the practice level, the median rate of guideline concordant followup was 26.5% (range 10% to 67.5%, p <0.001). Among patients with discordant followup, the absence of followup biopsy was common and not significantly different across practices (median rate 82.0%, p = 0.35). Conclusions Among diverse community and academic practices in Michigan, there is wide variation in the proportion of men on active surveillance who meet guideline recommendations for followup prostate specific antigen testing and repeat biopsy. These data highlight the need for standardized active surveillance pathways that emphasize the role of repeat surveillance biopsies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)621-626
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • biopsy
  • prostate-specific antigen
  • prostatic neoplasms
  • quality improvement
  • watchful waiting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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