Variation in levels of AMH among Maya and non-Maya women in Campeche, Mexico

Moira A. Kyweluk, Lynnette Leidy Sievert*, Laura Huicochea-Gómez, Diana Cahuich-Campos, Thomas McDade, Daniel E. Brown

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels among women of Maya and non-Maya ancestry in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of AMH can potentially predict age at menopause. Previous studies have indicated an early mean age at menopause among the Maya. Materials and methods: Women aged 40-60 (n = 97) participated in semistructured interviews, anthropometric measures, and blood samples. Maya/non-Maya ethnicity was determined by the last names, languages spoken, and birthplace of the woman, her parents, and her grandparents. AMH values were categorized as detectable (0.05-4.19 ng/mL) and undetectable (<0.05 ng/mL). Logistic regressions calculated odds ratios (OR) for undetectable AMH. Results: Women were categorized as Maya (n = 44), not Maya (n = 39), or not able to be clearly defined (n = 14). In bivariate comparisons, women with detectable levels of AMH were younger, more likely to be pre-menopausal, and not Maya. Age, menopausal status, and ethnicity remained significant in a logistic regression models after controlling for age at menarche. Maya women were more than five times as likely to have nondetectable AMH levels as non-Maya women. Discussion: Increasing age and progression through the menopausal transition were both associated with declining levels of AMH. The association between Maya ethnicity and a lower likelihood of detecting AMH is consistent with the early ages at menopause reported in previous studies. We considered a rapid life history model as an explanatory framework, and suggest, from an ecological perspective, that future research should consider measures of developmental stress that may compromise ovarian reserves.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)282-290
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 2018


  • age at menopause
  • ethnicity
  • menopause
  • ovarian follicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Anthropology

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