Variations in practice in cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up programs

Thomas A. Miller*, Anjali Sadhwani, Jacqueline Sanz, Erica Sood, Dawn Ilardi, Jane W. Newburger, Caren S. Goldberg, David Wypij, J. William Gaynor, Bradley S. Marino

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Over the last two decades, heart centres have developed strategies to meet the neurodevelopmental needs of children with congenital heart disease. Since the publication of guidelines in 2012, cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up programmes have become more widespread. Local neurodevelopmental programmes, however, have been developed independently in widely varying environments. We sought to characterise variation in structure and personnel in cardiac neurodevelopmental programmes. A 31-item survey was sent to all member institutions of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative. Multidisciplinary teams at each centre completed the survey. Responses were compiled in a descriptive fashion. Of the 29 invited centres, 23 responded to the survey (79%). Centres reported more anticipated neurodevelopment visits between birth and 5 years of age (median 5, range 2-8) than 5-18 years (median 2, range 0-10) with 53% of centres lacking any standard for routine neurodevelopment evaluations after 5 years of age. Estimated annual neurodevelopment clinic volume ranged from 85 to 428 visits with a median of 16% of visits involving children >5 years of age. Among responding centres, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence were the most routinely used tests. Neonatal clinical assessment was more common (64%) than routine neonatal brain imaging (23%) during hospitalisation. In response to clinical need and published guidelines, centres have established formal cardiac neurodevelopment follow-up programmes. Centres vary considerably in their approaches to routine screening and objective testing, with many centres currently focussing their resources on evaluating younger patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1603-1608
Number of pages6
JournalCardiology in the young
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Congenital heart disease
  • neurodevelopment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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