Vegetarian diets are associated with selected cardiometabolic risk factors among middle-older aged South Asians in the United States

Yichen Jin, Alka M. Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, Luis A. Rodriguez, Sameera A. Talegawkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Following a vegetarian diet is considered to be beneficial for overall health and is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease. Objective: This study examined whether South Asians in the United States who consume a vegetarian diet have a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, which included 892 South Asians (47% women), with an age range of 40-83 y and a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 9.4 y, were used. Participants were classified as vegetarian if they reported no consumption of meat, poultry, or fish in the previous year on a validated and culturally appropriate food-frequency questionnaire. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations of a vegetarian diet with cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: Thirty-eight percent of the cohort participants were classified as vegetarian. Vegetarians reported more frequent weekly eating occasions of whole grains (median frequency/wk: 10 compared with 9, P = 0.012) and beans and legumes (median frequency/wk: 8.5 compared with 5.1, P < 0.001), and less frequent weekly eating occasions of sweets and desserts (median frequency/wk: 1.9 compared with 2.3, P < 0.001). Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower body mass index (P = 0.023), fasting glucose (P = 0.015), insulin resistance (P = 0.003), total cholesterol (P = 0.027), and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.004) and lower odds of fatty liver (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.78, P = 0.006). The odds of having any coronary artery calcium were lower for vegetarian men (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.87, P = 0.013); however, no significant associations were observed among women. Conclusions: Among US South Asians, a vegetarian diet was associated with fewer cardiometabolic risk factors overall and with less subclinical atherosclerosis among men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1954-1960
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume148
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Vegetarian Diet
Atherosclerosis
Eating
Logistic Models
Fatty Liver
Poultry
Fabaceae
LDL Cholesterol
Meat
Insulin Resistance
Linear Models
Fasting
Coronary Vessels
Fishes
Body Mass Index
Chronic Disease
Cholesterol
Calcium
Glucose
Food

Keywords

  • Cardiometabolic risk factors
  • Dietary pattern
  • South Asians
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis
  • Vegetarian

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Jin, Yichen ; Kanaya, Alka M. ; Kandula, Namratha R ; Rodriguez, Luis A. ; Talegawkar, Sameera A. / Vegetarian diets are associated with selected cardiometabolic risk factors among middle-older aged South Asians in the United States. In: Journal of Nutrition. 2018 ; Vol. 148, No. 12. pp. 1954-1960.
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abstract = "Background: Following a vegetarian diet is considered to be beneficial for overall health and is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease. Objective: This study examined whether South Asians in the United States who consume a vegetarian diet have a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, which included 892 South Asians (47{\%} women), with an age range of 40-83 y and a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 9.4 y, were used. Participants were classified as vegetarian if they reported no consumption of meat, poultry, or fish in the previous year on a validated and culturally appropriate food-frequency questionnaire. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations of a vegetarian diet with cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: Thirty-eight percent of the cohort participants were classified as vegetarian. Vegetarians reported more frequent weekly eating occasions of whole grains (median frequency/wk: 10 compared with 9, P = 0.012) and beans and legumes (median frequency/wk: 8.5 compared with 5.1, P < 0.001), and less frequent weekly eating occasions of sweets and desserts (median frequency/wk: 1.9 compared with 2.3, P < 0.001). Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower body mass index (P = 0.023), fasting glucose (P = 0.015), insulin resistance (P = 0.003), total cholesterol (P = 0.027), and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.004) and lower odds of fatty liver (OR: 0.43; 95{\%} CI: 0.23, 0.78, P = 0.006). The odds of having any coronary artery calcium were lower for vegetarian men (OR: 0.53; 95{\%} CI: 0.32, 0.87, P = 0.013); however, no significant associations were observed among women. Conclusions: Among US South Asians, a vegetarian diet was associated with fewer cardiometabolic risk factors overall and with less subclinical atherosclerosis among men.",
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Vegetarian diets are associated with selected cardiometabolic risk factors among middle-older aged South Asians in the United States. / Jin, Yichen; Kanaya, Alka M.; Kandula, Namratha R; Rodriguez, Luis A.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 148, No. 12, 01.01.2018, p. 1954-1960.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Background: Following a vegetarian diet is considered to be beneficial for overall health and is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease. Objective: This study examined whether South Asians in the United States who consume a vegetarian diet have a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, which included 892 South Asians (47% women), with an age range of 40-83 y and a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 9.4 y, were used. Participants were classified as vegetarian if they reported no consumption of meat, poultry, or fish in the previous year on a validated and culturally appropriate food-frequency questionnaire. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations of a vegetarian diet with cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: Thirty-eight percent of the cohort participants were classified as vegetarian. Vegetarians reported more frequent weekly eating occasions of whole grains (median frequency/wk: 10 compared with 9, P = 0.012) and beans and legumes (median frequency/wk: 8.5 compared with 5.1, P < 0.001), and less frequent weekly eating occasions of sweets and desserts (median frequency/wk: 1.9 compared with 2.3, P < 0.001). Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower body mass index (P = 0.023), fasting glucose (P = 0.015), insulin resistance (P = 0.003), total cholesterol (P = 0.027), and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.004) and lower odds of fatty liver (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.78, P = 0.006). The odds of having any coronary artery calcium were lower for vegetarian men (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.87, P = 0.013); however, no significant associations were observed among women. Conclusions: Among US South Asians, a vegetarian diet was associated with fewer cardiometabolic risk factors overall and with less subclinical atherosclerosis among men.

AB - Background: Following a vegetarian diet is considered to be beneficial for overall health and is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease. Objective: This study examined whether South Asians in the United States who consume a vegetarian diet have a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, which included 892 South Asians (47% women), with an age range of 40-83 y and a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 9.4 y, were used. Participants were classified as vegetarian if they reported no consumption of meat, poultry, or fish in the previous year on a validated and culturally appropriate food-frequency questionnaire. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations of a vegetarian diet with cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: Thirty-eight percent of the cohort participants were classified as vegetarian. Vegetarians reported more frequent weekly eating occasions of whole grains (median frequency/wk: 10 compared with 9, P = 0.012) and beans and legumes (median frequency/wk: 8.5 compared with 5.1, P < 0.001), and less frequent weekly eating occasions of sweets and desserts (median frequency/wk: 1.9 compared with 2.3, P < 0.001). Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower body mass index (P = 0.023), fasting glucose (P = 0.015), insulin resistance (P = 0.003), total cholesterol (P = 0.027), and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.004) and lower odds of fatty liver (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.78, P = 0.006). The odds of having any coronary artery calcium were lower for vegetarian men (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.87, P = 0.013); however, no significant associations were observed among women. Conclusions: Among US South Asians, a vegetarian diet was associated with fewer cardiometabolic risk factors overall and with less subclinical atherosclerosis among men.

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