Velopharyngeal incompetence: Role in paediatric swallowing deficits

Laura H.Swibel Rosenthal*, Kathleen Walsh, Dana M. Thompson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose of review The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the latest advances in diagnosis and management of velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) as it pertains to swallowing deficits in children. This is timely and relevant as otolaryngologists are often amongst the first to diagnose and treat VPI. Although nasal regurgitation of a bolus is frequently transient, persistent problems can be associated with other swallowing problems and other significant medical problems. Furthermore, velopharyngeal incompetence has implications for speech production. Recent findings Persistent VPI associated with a swallowing deficit can be an isolated anomaly with or without a cleft palate or submucous cleft palate. VPI may be secondary to a cranial neuropathy, esophageal abnormality or associated with another airway anomaly, any of which may further contribute to dysphagia. Findings of additional anomalies may be suggestive of a syndrome. Workup should explore these potential causes. When velopharyngeal incompetence is associated with dysphagia, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow (FEES) and videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) can be helpful in diagnosis and management. The advantages and disadvantages of FEES and VFSS have been well delineated over the past few years. Similarly, nasopharyngoscopy and fluoroscopy are increasingly used in diagnosis and management of VPI that is associated with hypernasal resonance disorders. Summary Concurrent medical diagnoses or syndrome manifestations are often associated with or contribute significantly to the cause of dysphagia in children with VPI. As VPI can be a sign of brainstem vagal neuropathy, the clinician should investigate by imaging the CNS if other correlative symptoms of dysphagia and examination findings are present. Endoscopy is advocated for evaluation of vocal fold function. Fluoroscopy is best for further assessment of airway protection or safety of swallow. And, whenever indicated, additional workup is recommended to determine an underlying cause of the swallowing disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)356-366
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency
Deglutition
Pediatrics
Deglutition Disorders
Fluoroscopy
Cleft Palate
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Vocal Cords
Nose
Endoscopy
Brain Stem

Keywords

  • Chiari malformation
  • Dysphagia
  • Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow
  • Vagal neuropathy
  • Velopharyngeal incompetence
  • Videofluoroscopic swallow study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

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title = "Velopharyngeal incompetence: Role in paediatric swallowing deficits",
abstract = "Purpose of review The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the latest advances in diagnosis and management of velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) as it pertains to swallowing deficits in children. This is timely and relevant as otolaryngologists are often amongst the first to diagnose and treat VPI. Although nasal regurgitation of a bolus is frequently transient, persistent problems can be associated with other swallowing problems and other significant medical problems. Furthermore, velopharyngeal incompetence has implications for speech production. Recent findings Persistent VPI associated with a swallowing deficit can be an isolated anomaly with or without a cleft palate or submucous cleft palate. VPI may be secondary to a cranial neuropathy, esophageal abnormality or associated with another airway anomaly, any of which may further contribute to dysphagia. Findings of additional anomalies may be suggestive of a syndrome. Workup should explore these potential causes. When velopharyngeal incompetence is associated with dysphagia, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow (FEES) and videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) can be helpful in diagnosis and management. The advantages and disadvantages of FEES and VFSS have been well delineated over the past few years. Similarly, nasopharyngoscopy and fluoroscopy are increasingly used in diagnosis and management of VPI that is associated with hypernasal resonance disorders. Summary Concurrent medical diagnoses or syndrome manifestations are often associated with or contribute significantly to the cause of dysphagia in children with VPI. As VPI can be a sign of brainstem vagal neuropathy, the clinician should investigate by imaging the CNS if other correlative symptoms of dysphagia and examination findings are present. Endoscopy is advocated for evaluation of vocal fold function. Fluoroscopy is best for further assessment of airway protection or safety of swallow. And, whenever indicated, additional workup is recommended to determine an underlying cause of the swallowing disorder.",
keywords = "Chiari malformation, Dysphagia, Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow, Vagal neuropathy, Velopharyngeal incompetence, Videofluoroscopic swallow study",
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Velopharyngeal incompetence : Role in paediatric swallowing deficits. / Rosenthal, Laura H.Swibel; Walsh, Kathleen; Thompson, Dana M.

In: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Vol. 26, No. 6, 01.01.2018, p. 356-366.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Velopharyngeal incompetence

T2 - Role in paediatric swallowing deficits

AU - Rosenthal, Laura H.Swibel

AU - Walsh, Kathleen

AU - Thompson, Dana M.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Purpose of review The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the latest advances in diagnosis and management of velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) as it pertains to swallowing deficits in children. This is timely and relevant as otolaryngologists are often amongst the first to diagnose and treat VPI. Although nasal regurgitation of a bolus is frequently transient, persistent problems can be associated with other swallowing problems and other significant medical problems. Furthermore, velopharyngeal incompetence has implications for speech production. Recent findings Persistent VPI associated with a swallowing deficit can be an isolated anomaly with or without a cleft palate or submucous cleft palate. VPI may be secondary to a cranial neuropathy, esophageal abnormality or associated with another airway anomaly, any of which may further contribute to dysphagia. Findings of additional anomalies may be suggestive of a syndrome. Workup should explore these potential causes. When velopharyngeal incompetence is associated with dysphagia, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow (FEES) and videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) can be helpful in diagnosis and management. The advantages and disadvantages of FEES and VFSS have been well delineated over the past few years. Similarly, nasopharyngoscopy and fluoroscopy are increasingly used in diagnosis and management of VPI that is associated with hypernasal resonance disorders. Summary Concurrent medical diagnoses or syndrome manifestations are often associated with or contribute significantly to the cause of dysphagia in children with VPI. As VPI can be a sign of brainstem vagal neuropathy, the clinician should investigate by imaging the CNS if other correlative symptoms of dysphagia and examination findings are present. Endoscopy is advocated for evaluation of vocal fold function. Fluoroscopy is best for further assessment of airway protection or safety of swallow. And, whenever indicated, additional workup is recommended to determine an underlying cause of the swallowing disorder.

AB - Purpose of review The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the latest advances in diagnosis and management of velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) as it pertains to swallowing deficits in children. This is timely and relevant as otolaryngologists are often amongst the first to diagnose and treat VPI. Although nasal regurgitation of a bolus is frequently transient, persistent problems can be associated with other swallowing problems and other significant medical problems. Furthermore, velopharyngeal incompetence has implications for speech production. Recent findings Persistent VPI associated with a swallowing deficit can be an isolated anomaly with or without a cleft palate or submucous cleft palate. VPI may be secondary to a cranial neuropathy, esophageal abnormality or associated with another airway anomaly, any of which may further contribute to dysphagia. Findings of additional anomalies may be suggestive of a syndrome. Workup should explore these potential causes. When velopharyngeal incompetence is associated with dysphagia, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow (FEES) and videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) can be helpful in diagnosis and management. The advantages and disadvantages of FEES and VFSS have been well delineated over the past few years. Similarly, nasopharyngoscopy and fluoroscopy are increasingly used in diagnosis and management of VPI that is associated with hypernasal resonance disorders. Summary Concurrent medical diagnoses or syndrome manifestations are often associated with or contribute significantly to the cause of dysphagia in children with VPI. As VPI can be a sign of brainstem vagal neuropathy, the clinician should investigate by imaging the CNS if other correlative symptoms of dysphagia and examination findings are present. Endoscopy is advocated for evaluation of vocal fold function. Fluoroscopy is best for further assessment of airway protection or safety of swallow. And, whenever indicated, additional workup is recommended to determine an underlying cause of the swallowing disorder.

KW - Chiari malformation

KW - Dysphagia

KW - Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallow

KW - Vagal neuropathy

KW - Velopharyngeal incompetence

KW - Videofluoroscopic swallow study

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