TRIM5 proteins constitute a class of restriction factors that prevent host cell infection by retroviruses from different species. TRIM5α restricts retroviral infection early after viral entry, before the generation of viral reverse transcription products. However, the underlying restriction mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show that during rhesus macaque TRIM5α (rhTRIM5α)-mediated restriction of HIV-1 infection, cytoplasmic HIV-1 viral complexes can associate with concentrations of TRIM5α protein termed cytoplasmic bodies. We observe a dynamic interaction between rhTRIM5α and cytoplasmic HIV-1 viral complexes, including the de novo formation of rhTRIM5α cytoplasmic body - like structures around viral complexes. We observe that proteasome inhibition allows HIV-1 to remain stably sequestered into large rhTRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies, preventing the clearance of HIV-1 viral complexes from the cytoplasm and revealing an intermediate in the restriction process. Furthermore, we can measure no loss of capsid protein from viral complexes arrested at this intermediate step in restriction, suggesting that any rhTRIM5α-mediated loss of capsid protein requires proteasome activity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology