Vitamin D Deficiency and Metabolism in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

Long Zhang, Adrienne Tin, Todd T. Brown, Joseph B. Margolick, Mallory D. Witt, Frank J. Palella, Lawrence A. Kingsley, Andrew N. Hoofnagle, Lisa P. Jacobson, Alison G. Abraham*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


We evaluated associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) levels in a cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men at risk for infection in the United States. Stored samples collected between 1999 and 2008 were tested for vitamin D metabolites between 2014 and 2015. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum concentration of 25[OH]D <20 ng/ml. Multivariate models were used to assess associations of various demographic and clinical factors with vitamin D status. HIV-infected men on effective antiretroviral therapy (n = 640) and HIV-uninfected men (n = 99) had comparable levels of 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH]2D, and prevalences of vitamin D deficiency were 41% in HIV-infected and 44% in HIV-uninfected men, respectively. Self-reported black or other non-white race, obesity, and normal kidney function were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency regardless of HIV serostatus. Lower CD4+ T cell count was associated with vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected men, while current ritonavir use was protective. Self-reported black race was the only factor significantly associated with higher levels of 1,25[OH]2D (vs. whites; β = 4.85 pg/ml, p = .003). Levels of 1,25[OH]2D and 25[OH]D were positively correlated in HIV-infected men (β = 0.32 pg/ml, p < .001), but not in uninfected men (β = -0.09 pg/ml, p = .623; p < .05 for interaction). Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent regardless of HIV serostatus in this cohort, suggesting that HIV infection did not confer additional risk of deficiency in this cohort of well-treated HIV-infected men. However, HIV infection and race may have implications for vitamin D metabolism and 1,25[OH]2D levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-270
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS research and human retroviruses
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2017


  • 1,25[OH]D
  • 25[OH]D
  • HIV-infected
  • HIV-uninfected
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology
  • Immunology


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