Vitamin D Modulation of TRAIL Expression in Human Milk and Mammary Epithelial Cells

Yuvaraj Sambandam, Sakamuri V. Reddy, Jennifer L. Mulligan, Christina Voelkel-Johnson, Carol L. Wagner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

The vitamin D levels in mothers affect the health status of both the mother and breastfeeding infant. Vitamin D deficient mothers' infants are prone to rickets. While tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been implicated in cellular growth/apoptosis, immune cell function and bone-resorbing osteoclast formation, the expression of TRAIL in human milk as a function of vitamin D status in mothers remains unknown. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency alters TRAIL protein levels in human breast milk and mammary epithelial cells. Milk from vitamin D deficient mothers showed high levels of TRAIL (α and β) proteins compared to milk from vitamin D replete women. Western blot analysis of total cell lysate obtained from normal human mammary epithelial (HME-1) cells treated with variable doses (0-20 nM) of vitamin D for 24 h demonstrated that low levels (0.5 to 5 nM) significantly increased the TRAIL α but no change in β expression. In contrast, vitamin D at 20 nM concentration suppressed the expression of both TRAIL α and β proteins. Consistently, vitamin D regulated TRAIL mRNA expression in HME-1 cells. Our results indicate that vitamin D status in mothers modulates TRAIL expression in breast milk, which may have implications for both mother and infant health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4362
JournalScientific reports
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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