Vitamin D receptor activation and left ventricular hypertrophy in advanced kidney disease

Ravi Thadhani*, Evan Appelbaum, Yuchiao Chang, Yili Pritchett, Ishir Bhan, Rajiv Agarwal, Carmine Zoccali, Christoph Wanner, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Jorge Cannata, Taylor Thompson, Paul Audhya, Dennis Andress, Wuyan Zhang, Jun Ye, David Packham, Bhupinder Singh, Daniel Zehnder, Warren J. Manning, Ajay PachikaScott D. Solomon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Background: In chronic kidney disease (CKD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prevalent and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation attenuates LVH progression in animal models. Methods: PRIMO is a multinational, randomized, double-blinded trial with oral paricalcitol in subjects with stages 3-4 CKD, mild-to-moderate LVH and an LV ejection fraction >50%. The primary endpoint is change in the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) compared with placebo after 48 weeks of treatment. The main secondary endpoints are changes in diastolic function parameters. In this paper, we report baseline characteristics from this study. Results: LVMI was 33.0 ± 7.5 g/m 2.7 for males and 30.8 ± 7.2 g/m 2.7 for females (p = 0.04). LVMI correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.24), urine albumin creatinine ratio (r = 0.39), troponin T (r = 0.29), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.25) and plasma levels of B-type brain natriuretic peptide (r = 0.22); all p < 0.01. In multiple linear regression, each remained independently associated with LVMI. The early diastolic velocity of the lateral mitral annulus (E') was 8.1 ± 2.4 cm/s. E' was inversely correlated with age in univariate (r = -0.14, p = 0.04) and multivariable (p = 0.02) analysis. Conclusion: Among 227 multinational subjects with stages 3-4 CKD, baseline LVMI correlates with baseline blood pressure, urine albumin creatinine ratio and cardiac biomarkers, and baseline diastolic function correlates with age. This research was funded by Abbott Laboratories; No. NCT00497146.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-149
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Nephrology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Vitamin D receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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