Waxing Scientific: Exploring New Options for Wax Seal Consolidation

Susan Russick, Rachel Lapkin, Ann Lindsey, Virginia Meredith, Vasare Rastonis, Giselle Simon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sample seals were created using an historic wax seal recipe applied to parchment scraps. The sample seals were then broken to resemble the damage seen on the historic seals. Several types of consolidants were tested,including B-72, PVA, and lvace. The consolidants were rated on the basis of several criteria: reversibility, working properties, change of sheen or color, and adhesion to wax and parchment.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-98
Number of pages4
JournalThe Book and Paper Group Annual
StatePublished - 2002


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