What Are Clinically Relevant Levels of Cellular and Biomolecular Analytes?

Shana O. Kelley*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Scopus citations


The ultimate goal of developing sensors for biomolecular analytes is to offer new tools for the analysis of clinical specimens for biomarkers of disease. It is thus important to understand the types of samples that are routinely used in the clinic for specific indications, and what the typical levels of relevant analytes are in these specimens. This Sensor Issues article summarizes information concerning levels of target molecules and cells that are of interest for the development of new diagnostics for infectious disease and cancer. Having this information in hand helps better define the "needle-in-a-haystack" challenge associated with developing robust sensors with the needed levels of sensitivity and specificity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-197
Number of pages5
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 24 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • bioanalysis
  • cancer
  • clinical samples
  • DNA detection
  • infectious disease
  • protein detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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