When the great equalizer shuts down: Schools, peers, and parents in pandemic times

Francesco Agostinelli, Matthias Doepke*, Giuseppe Sorrenti, Fabrizio Zilibotti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


What are the effects of school closures during the Covid-19 pandemic on children's education? Online education is an imperfect substitute for in-person learning, particularly for children from low-income families. Peer effects also change: schools allow children from different socio-economic backgrounds to mix together, and this effect is lost when schools are closed. Another factor is the response of parents, some of whom compensate for the changed environment through their own efforts, while others are unable to do so. We examine the interaction of these factors with the aid of a structural model of skill formation. We find that school closures have a large, persistent, and unequal effect on human capital accumulation. High school students from low-income neighborhoods suffer a learning loss of 0.4 standard deviations after a one-year school closure, whereas children from high-income neighborhoods initially remain unscathed. The channels operating through schools, peers, and parents all contribute to growing educational inequality during the pandemic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104574
JournalJournal of Public Economics
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Covid-19
  • Neighborhood Effects
  • Pandemics
  • Parenting
  • Parenting Style
  • Peer effects
  • Skill Acquisition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Finance


Dive into the research topics of 'When the great equalizer shuts down: Schools, peers, and parents in pandemic times'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this