Who Democratizes? Western-educated Leaders and Regime Transitions

Thomas Gift, Daniel Krcmaric*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Many theories attempt to explain why some countries democratize and others do not. Existing accounts, however, focus almost exclusively on structural factors and ignore individual leaders. In this article, we argue that leaders educated at Western universities are more likely to democratize than other leaders because Western education socializes leaders to prefer democracy and creates transnational linkages that alter the strategic calculus of democratization. Utilizing an original data set on the specific colleges and universities world leaders attended, we show that Western-educated leaders significantly and substantively improve a country’s democratization prospects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)671-701
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Conflict Resolution
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • democratic institutions
  • democratization
  • foreign policy
  • international organization
  • political leadership

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Political Science and International Relations


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